Coronary artery disease is caused by the accumulation of atheroma plaques on the inner walls, the consequence of which is a narrowing of the diameter of the arteries thus restricting blood circulation. Atheroma begins with a simple deposition of fat such as a lipid streak, linear and without consequence for the flow; over time, this streak can grow, load in lipids, fibrinogen, platelets and other blood cells as well as calcium to form atheroma plaque.
From an epidemiological point of view, atheroma is a public health problem causing the majority of cardiovascular diseases and whose frequency concerns 25% of the French population but, in detail, 48% of individuals aged 50 to 60 years and 78% beyond 60 years. With the exception of atherectomy, the treatments do not impact the atheroma plaque but try to compensate for the consequences of an obstruction of a blood vessel by it. In case of obstruction or significant arterial narrowing by atheroma, one of the gestures that can be suggested, is angioplasty. It depends on the condition of the affected artery and the general state. This technique aims at introducing a balloon into the artery, inflated at the level of the atheroma plaque, and to position a «stent». It is a metal and mesh stent, tubular in shape, helping to ensure a sufficient inner diameter to the artery. The stent, combined with the patient’s antiplatelet medication, reduces any risk of recurrence of stenosis. The transition from the use of stainless steel materials to polymer materials for the development of stents presents considerable challenges. It is the context in which the objectives of this thesis fall.

Publié le 02/04/2024